THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA ON THE SPIRITUAL AND INTELLECTUAL UPBRINGING OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
The article reveals approaches to the interpretation of the concept of spiritual-intellectual education and the influence of the media (cartoons, movies, video games) on the spiritual-intellectual development of younger schoolchildren. The best samples that can be used in school are analyzed.
Keywords: media, cartoons, children films, video games, spiritualintellectual education, spirituality, spiritual-intellectual development.
Tsukalova O. S.
PhD student of the second (master’s) level of higher education,
V. Vynnychenko Central Ukrainian Pedagogical University, Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine
The problem of educating junior schoolchildren has always been relevant. Socio-economic and political changes in our country have led to a transformation in the field of spiritual and intellectual values and norms of behavior in society. The study of the influence of media information on children, as well as ways to protect them from manipulation and propaganda, is now one of the most pressing pedagogical issues. Negative trends have emerged in the spiritual upbringing of modern children: books have faded into the background, replaced by TV and computer screens. The characters of fairy tales, cartoon heroes watched by modern junior schoolchildren are not always characterized by moral purity and high spirituality [1, p. 3].
Socio-cultural and economic transformations in society have caused profound changes in the education system. Universal values and ideals are becoming more and more important in all its links, and the problem of developing a spiritual, creative personality capable of making certain choices and consciously evaluating their activities is becoming more and more relevant. At the same time, the current situation in Ukraine is characterized by a spiritual crisis: inaccurate information, dubious acquaintances, addiction to computer games, involvement in religious sects, the development of aggression and cruelty, incitement to ethnic hatred, calls for military action, and the leveling of family values are just a few of the threats that children face when using computers and other modern technology. The media have made information warfare, and thus hybrid warfare, possible. Not only children, but also adults without sufficient training are powerless in the face of the onslaught of bold lies and sophisticated brainwashing. But on the other hand, the media provide access to the latest scientific, technical, and educational information; they facilitate learning, and ensure the development of distance education. So, we cannot give them up, but we must learn how to use them and how children perceive them correctly.
The psychological and pedagogical aspect of spirituality education is presented in the works of T. Vlasova, V. Zinchenko, and A. Maslow. Psychological aspects of intellectual activity were studied by representatives of general psychology S. Bondarenko, L. Vygotsky, E. Isaev, L. Kolberg, B. Kruglova, N. Leites. The most researched is the intersection of spiritual health and the formation of spiritual culture in the educational process, where spiritual culture is considered as the content and purpose of educational activities.
G. Shevchenko considers the concept of “spirituality” as “a specific property of a person, the internal energy power of a personality, as well as the problem of mastering the meaningful life values, goals and meanings”, and according to O. Sukhomlynska, “spirituality is a complex mental phenomenon of self-awareness of a personality, internal perception, appropriation of the spheres of culture, humanization, growing into it and understanding as one’s own property” [2, p. 19].
According to A. Bogush, “spirituality is a kind of intellectual, sensual, emotional state of a person, which takes place against a positive background of human behavior and activity and characterizes his or her integrity as a person” [2, p. 19].
Thus, from a pedagogical point of view, spirituality is a certain type of human attitude to nature, society, other people, and oneself; individual expression of a person in the system of his/her motives for life; the need to know the world, oneself, the meaning and purpose of one’s life, the need to act for others. Spirituality is not identified with the spiritual life of society.
It is a way of personal development. If worldview involves choosing a way of life, then spirituality is associated with choosing one’s own image, destiny, and role, in short, with meeting oneself. From the above, we can conclude that spirituality is understood as a process by which the spiritual potential of the soul develops in a balanced and harmonious way. The spiritual transformation of a person is a process of education and training that leads to spiritual growth. Spiritual growth is the basis of human ethics and morality, and humanistic development. Everything that promotes spiritual growth is for the good. If left unchecked, our natural needs and desires can lead a person astray from the spiritual path.
In recent years, a large number of psychologists, sociologists, medical professionals, and educators have been analyzing the impact of media on the spiritual and intellectual development of children. For example, modern cartoons highlight many new social trends that did not exist before. One of them is the broadcasting of non-standard examples of sexual and role behavior. A significant proportion of modern cartoons show masculine women wearing men’s clothes, showing strong-willed character traits and strength, and vice versa. In primary school, children’s sexual identification takes place. Watching such scenes can have a negative impact on a child’s behavior. Another important problem is the use of slang and obscene language. Children immediately memorize “interesting” words.
That is why we can say with certainty that early involvement of a child in watching television programs negatively affects the child’s development, significantly reduces his or her curiosity and makes him or her passive. This is later transferred to real life. Over time, a child gets used to doing only what does not require effort. They are slow to engage in the lesson and have a hard time absorbing the information. And without active mental activity, there is no development of memory and associations. The computer and TV take away children’s childhood.
Instead of active games, experiencing real emotions, feelings and communication with peers and parents, learning about themselves through the living world around them, children spend hours, and sometimes days, watching TV and computers, depriving themselves of the opportunity for development that is given to a person only in childhood.
Today, intellectual and spiritual education involves the development of cognitive interest, creative activity, and thinking; fostering the need to acquire knowledge independently and the readiness to apply knowledge and skills in practical activities; realizing personal life choices and building a professional career based on abilities and knowledge, skills, and abilities; and fostering the ability to form and defend one’s own position.
Television, by its very nature and social functions, has enormous potential to influence the spiritual development of children. A child develops a psychological dependence on the screen, which can ultimately lead to alienation from live communication with other people, to narrowing the scope of joint activities of the child and adults in the family.
The screen becomes a substitute for traditional play with peers, which is a prerequisite for a child’s mental and social development and personal formation. Screen images, having the ability to be imprinted in the mind, form a picture of the world of a modern child, which leads to a reassessment of the traditional system of values and lifestyle.
List of references
1. Preparation of future teachers for the formation of spiritual health of primary schoolchildren: monograph / Boychuk Y. D. et al. Kharkiv: FOP Mezivna V. V., 2018. 128 с.
2. Definition of spirituality in modern pedagogy: philosophical, pedagogical and religious prerequisites. URL: file:///C:/Users/777/Downloads/Nznuoapp_2010_16_19.pdf (accessed 01.11.2022).
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