COMMON HUMAN VALUES AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THE HUMANIZATION OF EDUCATION
The system of economic education needs a fundamentally new consideration in the context of a cultural approach, which involves awareness of its universal essence. This approach reveals its focus on the person (namely, the creation of prerequisites for spiritual enrichment, self-determination and self-realization of the individual), will outline the ways of moral improvement of the economic system.
Keywords: economic thinking, universal values, humanistic orientation, humanization of education.
Cherusheva G. B.
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit, Kyiv, Ukraine
Parkhomenko V. V.
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor,
National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit, Kyiv, Ukraine
The National Doctrine of Education and the Concept for the Development of Economic Education in Ukraine define priority areas of vocational education: integration into the European and global educational spaces; integration of educational institutions of different accreditation levels (universities, colleges, technical schools, etc.) and enterprises, creation of an open socio-professional space to ensure the quality of professional training and mobility of economics graduates in the labor market; integration of science and education for the purpose of a system of vocational training of economic specialists.
Throughout the civilized world, higher education is viewed not only as an institution to meet the professional needs of the individual, but also as a spiritual necessity. Such education can prepare young people to accept new ideas and social relations.
Today, an economic system that takes into account the social aspects of society, the factors, prerequisites and values that truly contribute to the survival, preservation and development of humanity is viable. In view of this, the formation of the economic culture of future specialists on a universal basis and in the context of new trends in the country’s socio-cultural development is one of the most pressing contemporary pedagogical problems.
The analysis of scientific research (J. Zavalna, P. Lepak, E. Luzik, T. Poyasok, D. Rozumenko, V. Shynkaruk, and others), as well as the study of the experience of higher education institutions of economic orientation, allows us to draw conclusions about the deepening gap between the development of social life and the traditional system of professional training of economists. The economic knowledge of the majority of graduates is purely theoretical, detached from real life, and as a result, graduates are unable to withstand the crisis phenomena of a market economy.
The goal of the training system should be to change the attitudes and behavioral patterns of future specialists, to harmoniously develop their professional and socially useful competencies, professional and social experience for confident competition in the labor market and in public life.
The content of economic training should include not only the development of an appropriate level of economic education, but also economic thinking.
The need to form professional thinking is due to the laws, principles and peculiarities of the economy, the value of the human factor in the management of socio-political, economic and socio-psychological processes at enterprises.
Economic thinking, according to V. Kovalchuk, is “a universal mental ability of an economic specialist to indirect, abstract, rational and generalized knowledge of the phenomena of economic reality, its essence and the existing links between them, to effectively solve various economic problems, based on a set of mental operations” [3, p. 8]. The basis of economic thinking is made up of traits that are a manifestation of moral and ethical, universal values, namely: honesty, responsibility, initiative, independence, high discipline, entrepreneurship, realism and criticality, flexibility, creativity and economy, confidence in the future.
According to O. Nadtochieva, if the developed economic culture of both society and the individual does not have a deep moral, universal basis, does not take into account huge environmental problems and does not take into account the fact of limited natural and human resources, it will inevitably lead to a global catastrophe.
“Universal values, norms and rules of behavior in the socio-economic sphere should become the qualities of economic consciousness and behavior of an economist, the knowledge that is experienced by a person on an emotional level, perceived as something personally significant” [6, p.8].
The theoretical analysis of the future economist’s professional training and the formation of his/her economic culture allowed us to develop a concept based on universal values.
The humanistic paradigm of the modern system of educational activity is based on the principles of human-centeredness.
V. H. Kremen notes that “The term human-centeredness refers to various and at the same time conceptually directed shades of philosophical thought, the object of which is a person” [4, p. 9].
Today, economic specialists should realize that a human-centered approach creates fundamental prerequisites for continuous self-improvement and professional growth of employees, a high level of qualification and professionalism, a positive microclimate and a creative work environment. Employees of organizations are active participants in generating ideas, making decisions, and implementing production tasks.
The standards of behavior in the economy and the effectiveness of solving economic problems largely depend on the socio-psychological qualities of economic entities, in particular, the personality orientation.
The basis of the orientation is a social attitude and socially significant qualities, a system of value orientations of the individual, which includes economic freedom, competition, respect for any form of ownership, and commercial success as a social achievement. An economist motivated to work creatively shows great interest in innovative projects, implementation of various inventions and achievements.
The relevance of the problem of forming humanistic values is due to the tendencies of intellectual growth and spiritual enrichment of each person, satisfaction of their individual needs, development of abilities and inclinations on the principles of independent choice. The problem of developing the humanistic orientation of specialists has long been the subject of scientific research by S. Honcharenko, Y. Malyovanyi, V. Andrushchenko, I. Bekh, I. Zyazyun and others. The humanistic orientation of the future economist, which we understand as an integrated set of personal and value-based human qualities, kindness, compassion, justice, moral and spiritual values, awareness of the value of other people and the ability to act in their interests, is one of the ways to improve professional training. In this concept, the task of education is to help individuals learn about the world around them, themselves, moral and ethical standards and norms of behavior, and on this basis to create a value-based cultural basis for the economy and society as a whole.
In the modern professional economic education of Ukraine, the priority tasks of its development are to acquire a humanistic and innovative orientation, to ensure that the individual is really prepared for life in a changing, dynamic society and to promote the establishment of positive universal values. Creative approaches to the organization of the educational process, taking into account the individual characteristics of each student, actualization of the role of the teacher, development of creative interaction between the teacher and the student at the level of subject-subject relations will help to reveal their abilities and creative potential in the future, and ensure their professional growth. Such personality-based learning is a leading strategy for humanizing education and is based on the recognition of the individual as a systemic factor. The personality-oriented approach is based on the life and professional dispositions of the future specialist, taking into account his or her individual psychological properties. This approach, according to domestic scientists V. Andrushchenko and V. Lugovoi, is the most fully consistent with the new paradigm of education and the requirements of the information society .
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