GRIGORY SKOVORODA’S CONCEPT OF «RELATED WORK» IN THE SPIRITUAL AND INTELLECTUAL UPBRINGING OF THE PERSONALITY OF THE XX CENTURY: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSION
In the human-centered paradigm, through the prism of H. Skovoroda’s concept of «related work», the psychological problem of life-creating self-realization of the new generation of Ukrainians is substantiated. The humanistic ideas of “kinship”, “philosophy of the heart”, freedom-loving of the outstanding Ukrainian philosopher are comprehended as psychological guidelines for the spiritual and intellectual formation of a growing personality.
Keywords: «related work», personality, self-knowledge, spiritual and intellectual formation.
Kikinezhdi O. M.
Doctor of Psychology, Professor,
Ternopil National Pedagogical University named after V. Hnatiuk, Ternopil, Ukraine
Kiz O. B.
PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor,
Ternopil Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
Vasylkevych Y. Z.
PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor,
Hryhorii Skovoroda Pereiaslav University, Pereiaslav, Ukraine
Addressing humanitarian issues in the creative heritage of the outstanding Ukrainian philosopher of the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century H. Skovoroda, whose 300th anniversary is celebrated today by the whole world and Ukraine, focuses the attention of researchers on the search for psychological guidelines for spiritual and intellectual education and training of a new generation of Ukrainians in order to preserve humanity in the “inhuman conditions” of Russia’s full-scale war against Ukraine.
The purpose of the article is to substantiate the psychological guidelines for the life-creative self-realization of a new generation of Ukrainians, the spiritual and intellectual formation of a growing personality through the study of the human-centered paradigm through the prism of H. Skovoroda’s concept of «related work», humanistic ideas of “philosophy of the heart”, and freedom-lovingness.
The true wisdom of the science of the “Life-Giving Spirit” of the brilliant Ukrainian Lyubomudr is proof of the enormous vitality of our nation and a spiritual guide for us, the descendants, in the struggle for freedom and independence of Ukraine.
According to scholars, the originality of H. Skovoroda‘s ethical and humanistic concept, his creative heritage remains “terra incognita” for researchers, as it conceals huge deposits of still unclaimed productive and urgent topics for today, one of which is the phenomenon of “kinship” as the fundamental basis of creative self-realization of a person and his or her spiritual development in general. The psychological dimension through the prism of the concept of “related work” will allow us to find the latest character of consideration of the problem of life-creative realization of man in modern conditions.
Skovoroda’s humanistic ideas, namely the ideas of “kinship,” self-knowledge, “philosophy of the heart,” and freedom-loving as deep problems of the individual, his innate spiritual need, set forth in the philosopher’s fundamental work “A Conversation Called the Alphabet, or the Alphabet of the World,” are in tune with the scientific research of many Ukrainian psychologists. For example, P. Chamata studied theoretical problems of self-knowledge and self-consciousness (collections of articles “Essays on the History of National Psychology” (1952-1959). G. Kostiuk noted that “the true art of education is manifested where it is based on manifestations of “self-movement”, initiative, independence, creative activity in the life of a developing personality, causing and directing them in accordance with the purpose of the society that is preparing its change” [4, p.136]. The problem of human resilience and independence in the plane of the problem of action has been thoroughly studied at a high theoretical level by V. Roments .
The category of personality as one of the central ones in humanities in general and in academic and practical psychology in particular is considered from the point of view of rational-humanistic worldview and methodological orientation (G. Ball, I. Bech, R. Trach), “genesis of personality fulfillment” (S. Maksymenko), tradition of spiritual and existential understanding of personality (M. Boryshevsky, V. Velychko, T. Hovorun, N. Zhyhailo, A. Zelinchenko, Z. Karpenko, E. Pomytkin, M. Savchyn), as a socio-cultural reality, when he comprehends himself and his life in certain discourses (T. Titarenko), the subject of self-determination and the realization of the act (V. Romenets, V. Tatenko). Tatenko), actualization of the creative essence of man (V. Moliako, O. Kulchytska), historical and psychological reconstruction of psychological thought and dialogicity of Ukrainian culture (V. Kuevda, V. Lytovskyi, Y. Rozhdestvenskyi, V. Turban, M.-L. Chepa, etc. L. Chepa and other scholars).
In the anthropological cognition of man as the main carrier of mentality and civilizational progress, the idea of self-knowledge, according to modern psychological research, is a reflection of one’s inner world, awareness of one’s own potential and real possibilities. According to the prominent thinker, there is nothing more important, majestic, and useful than knowing yourself:
“My God! How much do people not realize that within us secretly lives true goodness, which neither aphids nor thieves can eat! Why are you, man, afraid of fate? Can’t you see that it can only take away from you what is empty, and has no power over your true good? Your heart, your thoughts, your spirit, and your mind are the root and beginning of your fortune, which is subject to the flesh, do you understand? What is its price and greatness? Oh, know thyself, man!” [8, с. 223].
Especially, as M. Boryshevsky emphasizes, if we keep in mind the development of the human personality as a spiritual being, because without self-knowledge it is impossible to establish self-identity, which is a condition for the emergence of responsibility, which should be considered as a basic formation in the structure of morality, and therefore as an indispensable determinant of the formation and development of spirituality [2, p. 23].
Speaking of the “inner man,” the prominent philosopher often uses the concept of “heart,” which he uses to outline the “invisible nature” of mental and spiritual life. The study of the influence of the “philosophy of the heart” on the development of the humanitarian field of modern science, in the center of which is the problem of the human life meaning, socio-philosophical analysis of the problem of spirituality, as well as the idea of «related work» as the basis of self-realization and creative activity, can be found in the works of modern philosophers (M. Bratasiuk, S. Vilchynska, H. Volynka, N. Dobrianska, I. Zakhara, V. Kostenko, A. Mudryk, M. Skrynnyk, D. Slobodianiuk, etc.)
In this context, the opinion of psychologist G. Ball sounds like a relevant refrain that
“the humanistic orientation in the field of education, upbringing, psychological assistance, etc. implies focusing: a) on the harmonious improvement of the whole person; b) on raising the level of his or her own personal development, which requires the most complete and organic (corresponding to the resources and potentials of the person) “entry into culture”, not only as a carrier, but also as a subject of the latter. However, the scientist emphasizes that it is more accurate to talk about entering a system whose components represent the reproductive-normative and dialogic-creative sides of culture in its universal, special (national, professional, etc.) and individual (personal) modes” [1, p. 178].
The concept of «related work» by H. Skovoroda actualizes the creative essence of a person as the key to individual self-realization.
According to V. Moliako’s psychological research on the phenomenon of creativity as the basis of personality formation, the affinity inherent in a person is the basis of his or her formation as a human creator who is able to reveal his or her spiritual and life potential with the greatest benefit for himself or herself and for other people.
The scientist distinguishes the following creative abilities: the desire for originality in decisions, the search for new things, perseverance in achieving the goal, ingenuity, criticality and self-criticism, flexibility of thinking, energy, stubbornness, and self-belief .
It should be noted that, according to H. Skovoroda, “affinity” is the result of a person’s choice of the field of activity, and the ability to choose is a necessary condition for a person to be in a situation of freedom. Therefore, the topic of freedom, which the philosopher considers to be the key to and a condition for the realization of the highest potentials of the individual and society, occupies a prominent place in the reflections of the humanist thinker. When there is no possibility to choose, there is no kinship. Yes, not pedigree, property wealth, and ranks, but “kinship” should determine the true dimensions of a person in society and society in a person. The philosopher is an advocate of personal freedom, his escape from the world, his auto-epitaph “the world caught me but did not catch me” is one of the means of not only personal but also national self-preservation, because only through the national one can one comprehend the universal.
According to H. Skovoroda, related work determines the extent to which a person realizes his or her personal vocation and social benefit. The philosopher wrote:
“The human soul is completely dead, deprived of its natural work, like muddy and stinking water, locked in darkness. I have been telling young people to search for their nature. It is a pity that parents do not instill this in the hearts of their sons early on. Hence, it happens that a military company is led by someone who should be in an orchestra” [7, p. 422].
After all, it is the inclination to a particular type and kind of human activity that primarily determines its (activity, work) akin character. In addition, activities that do not correspond to a person’s natural inclinations can be harmful to society. In his opinion, this situation is due to the fact that not all young people are engaged in self-knowledge, which should be encouraged by parents in the process of family upbringing. These ideas of G. Skovoroda are reflected in the studies of T. Hovorun, O. Kikinezhdi on the psychological mechanisms of socialization of children and youth and the role of the parental family in preparing for various social roles: marital, parental, family, civil (professional, political, cultural and educational) [3, p. 22].
In the context of the human-centered paradigm, the current priorities of the socio-cultural modernization of the education system reflect the general trends in the study of man as a subject of life-creation in psychological research, the search for ways and methods to outline the prospects for the formation of a growing personality, which is in line with Skovoroda’s “listening to oneself”, nobility and asceticism, awareness of one’s own psychological and spiritual strength on the path to wisdom, happiness and authentic life.
Today, the ideas of H. Skovoroda’s life wisdom, filled with deep meaning, concerning the psychological essence of man, respect for the Old Kyivan and Cossack traditions, the idea of the primacy of the Spirit, heart, inner burning, voice of conscience, etc., are more relevant than ever, and are valuable guidelines in the humanistic direction of civic education of the younger generation of Ukrainians, creative self-determination of the individual in the complex socio-economic, political and humanitarian circumstances of today and its struggle for freedom and independence of our state,
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