MORAL AND SPIRITUAL FORMATION OF THE PERSONALITY OF A JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILD: THE ESSENCE OF CONCEPTS
The article emphasizes the importance of moral and spiritual education of children and youth. It is emphasized that morality is a component of spirituality and is manifested in such personality qualities as kindness, mercy, humanism, freedom, love, respect for one’s neighbor, etc. The essence of the concept of “moral and spiritual education” in relation to different age categories of students is revealed: preschool children, adolescents, students, and primary schoolchildren.
Keywords: morality, spirituality, moral and spiritual education, junior schoolchildren.
Desyatnyk K. V.
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of Theory and Methods of Primary Education,
Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk, Ukraine
Gorodenska V. S.
is a student of the third (educational and scientific) level of higher education,
Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, Lutsk, Ukraine
The upbringing and self-education of the human soul – its feelings, mind and will – is one of the “painful” problems of the modern school, and the spiritual and moral health of both each individual and the psychological atmosphere of the whole society depends on this factor. Therefore, it is through purposefully organized spiritual and moral upbringing and self-education that we will gradually be able to change society itself – to make it more humane, humane and democratic [6, p. 371].
The philosophical interpretation of the peculiarities of spiritual and moral upbringing of the individual is reflected in the works of V. Andrushchenko, R. Artsyshevsky, N. Borodina, N. Iordaki, O. Kakurin, N. Karaulna and others.
The problem of moral and spiritual development of the individual is considered at the psychological (I. Bekh, M. Boryshevsky, O. Klymyshyn, S. Maksymenko, E. Pomytkin, V. Semychenko, J. Yuzvak, etc. Avdiyants, A. Bogush, V. Bodnar, V. Butenko, V. Vorozhbit, L. Zdanevych, M. Yevtukh, O. Kiyan, O. Kobernyk, O. Monke, J. Petrochko, I. Sidanych, O. Sukhomlynska, O. Sukhomlynskyi, H. Padalka, T. Tyurina, H. Shevchenko, etc.) levels.
In the context of the research problem, let us consider the essence of the concept of “moral and spiritual upbringing” in relation to different age categories of students.
First of all, it should be noted that morality in the works of scholars (O. Klymyshyn, O. Monke, N. Rada, T. Rusakova, J. Yuzvak, etc.) is considered as a component of spirituality. In particular, O. Monke in his study proves the interdependence of the development of personal morality and spirituality and emphasizes that morality is a component of spirituality, which is manifested in such qualities of a person as kindness, mercy, humanism, freedom, love, respect for one’s neighbor, etc. which are inherently moral and spiritual values.
Moral development of a personality is the process of learning the norms and rules of social behavior in the conditions of active communication and joint activity of a child and an adult [4, p. 3].
Spirituality is interpreted by T. Rusakova as universal, supra-personal, out-of-situation, as a transcultural phenomenon. Morality, according to the scientist, is associated with interpersonal relationships that have social, cultural and ethno-cultural conditions that affect the interpretation of moral categories and values. If the core of morality is a person’s attitude to his or her social responsibilities, then a value-based attitude to life, based on the ability to experience life in all its manifestations, is the core of one’s spirituality [5, p. 74].
Of considerable interest are the opinions of O. Klymyshyn, I. Siluyanova, E. Sokolova, and J. Yuzvak, who understand the content of spirituality as the integration of morality, humanity, and the ability to volitional regulation of the sensual realm. In particular, O. Klymyshyn emphasizes that the reflection of objective reality through the prism of good and evil is due to morality as one of the most important semantic components of spirituality [3, p. 86].
It is fair to say that the concept of “spirituality” is considered by scholars to be generic to morality.
The essence of the concept of “moral and spiritual upbringing” of preschoolers O. Monke interprets as a complex in nature, controlled and purposeful psychological and pedagogical process of interaction of a child with elements of spiritual culture, aimed at the formation of an internal system of spiritual values (universal and national); acquisition of experience of moral and spiritual behavior, which is formed primarily on the basis of knowledge about moral and spiritual values, which are further realized and transformed into their own priorities, become motives for their life [4, p. 3].
According to O. Kiyan, the moral and spiritual upbringing of younger adolescents is one of the most important processes of upbringing, which consists in awareness of the moral and spiritual structure of the individual, beliefs in the need to comply with the norms and rules of behavior, the need to master moral and spiritual norms; priority of moral and spiritual values, adequacy of self-esteem; positive attitude to parents and others; ability to make spiritual and moral choices, the desire for self-improvement, which is based on knowledge of moral and spiritual values, positive attitude to them and manifested in moral actions [2, p. 8].
We are impressed by S. Gurov’s opinion that spiritual and moral upbringing forms the core of the personality, affects all aspects and forms of human relations with the world: its ethical and aesthetic development, moral judgments, worldview, civic position, patriotic and family orientation, intellectual potential, emotional state, general physical and mental development [1, p. 29].
Studying the problem of forming spiritual and moral values of students, the researcher proves that spiritual and moral upbringing contributes to the formation of moral feelings (conscience, duty, faith, responsibility, citizenship, patriotism); morality (patience, mercy, meekness, non-judgmentalism) moral position (the ability to distinguish between good and evil, manifestation of selfless love, readiness to overcome life’s trials); moral behavior (readiness to serve people and the Motherland, spiritual prudence, obedience, good will). The internal basis of society should be formed by spiritual norms, traditions and values [1, p. 146].
In view of the above, we understand moral and spiritual upbringing of primary schoolchildren as a purposeful process that involves active interaction between teachers and students, aimed at the spiritual development of the individual, the formation of the value and meaning sphere in the process of assimilation of moral, spiritual and national values, moral norms of behavior in society, a positive attitude towards them and manifested in moral actions and behavior.
Thus, the leading goal of education at the present stage is to create conditions for the comprehensive development of a person as an individual, the formation of moral, spiritual and national values, and the upbringing of responsible citizens who are able to direct their activities to the benefit of other people and society.
List of references
1. Gurov S. Y. Formation of spiritual and moral values of students of humanitarian specialties by means of fiction: PhD thesis. East Ukrainian Volodymyr Dahl National University, 2020.
2. Kiyan O. I. Parent-teacher interaction as a factor in the moral and spiritual education of younger adolescents: PhD in Pedagogy. Institute of Educational Problems, 2010.
3. Klymyshyn O. Conceptual provisions of personality spirituality. The unity of national and universal in the formation of moral and spiritual values: a collection of scientific works. Ivano-Frankivsk, 2002.
4. Monke O. S. Theoretical and methodological bases of training future teachers for moral and spiritual education of preschoolers by means of fiction: Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences. Institute of Educational Problems, 2020.
5. Rusakova T. G. Cultural and dynamic system of promoting the formation of the child’s spiritual experience: Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences. 2006.
6. Education of spirituality of student youth in the context of noospheric education: Doctoral dissertation. Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University, 2018.