NOOSPHERIC EDUCATION AS A BIO-APPROPRIATE METHODOLOGY OF AUTHENTIC EDUCATION
The essence and methodological techniques of noospheric education as a bio-adequate methodology are illustrated. The practical experience of implementing the noosphere council system in educational institutions is presented. The formation of mechanisms for effective learning on the basis of environment-forming activities, in particular the organization of ecological and tribal settlements, is proposed.
Keywords: ecological and tribal settlements, methodology, noospheric education, out-of-school education, nature-based environment of education and upbringing.
Plotnikova M. F.
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor,
Polissia National University, Zhytomyr, Ukraine
The problem of forming noospheric concepts in students is correlated with the understanding that man, like all living beings, depends on the environment, and the destruction of this environment creates an unfavorable environmental situation that arises as a result of the destruction of flora and fauna and atmospheric pollution, which ultimately leads to a global noospheric catastrophe. The solution to these problems is seen in the formation of an attitude towards any form of life on earth and in space and the Universe with love and assumption of responsibility for the future of the entire system, the destruction of which will undoubtedly lead to a global noospheric catastrophe . Socio-economic processes play a special role in shaping this phenomenon.
A critical analysis of scientific sources illustrates the considerable interest in the development of noospheric education on the part of scientists in Ukraine and the world. Many studies describe the general issues of noospheric education focused on the human-noosphere relationship (Andreoletti, Torrengo, Subetto, Maslova, Vernadsky). The authors note the great influence of noospheric education on the spiritual and value orientation of the individual (Asif, Klein), the importance of the methodology as a cognitive approach (Feldon, Georgiadi), the mechanism of forming nature-based experience (Hein-Leichsenring) . However, noospheric education as a bio-adequate methodology is not properly considered from the point of view of forming authentic experience and residual knowledge.
Scientists do not try to explain this phenomenon based on the regularities of the relationship between the categories of the individual, the special and the general in students’ cognitive activity. In addition, technologies for their formation have not been developed.
Therefore, the purpose of the study is to verify the content of the definition of “noospheric education” and to develop a technology for adaptation to teaching students of higher education institutions.
The object of the study is the process of implementing the practice of noospheric education for students of higher education institutions.
The subject of the study: technologies for the formation of noospheric concepts in students using a nature-based approach.
The research hypothesis: the formation of noospheric concepts in students of higher educational institutions will be more effective if a technology is developed based on the ratio of the categories of the individual, the special and the general in the conditions of nature as an environment-forming system.
In accordance with the purpose and hypothesis of the study, the following objectives were formulated:
1) to explain the content of the category “noospheric education” for students of higher educational institutions based on the categories of the individual, the special and the general in the conditions of the natural environment-forming system;
2) to define the criteria, methods and levels of formation of noospheric concepts in students of higher education institutions.
The achievement of this goal is related to the theoretical analysis of the main research area, which demonstrated that scientists identify different aspects of the definition of noospheric education and noospheric development. Some authors see it as a level of knowledge that allows us to define the noosphere as a new stage in the evolution of living matter, as the transition of evolution from its biological phase to the social and spiritual (Andreoletti, Torrengo, Vernadsky) [2-3, 5]. Other authors see it as an educational activity of students aimed at understanding noospheric ecology from the point of view of the unity of man, nature, the universe, space and time (Farr, Verhavert). Compared to traditional approaches, we consider this definition based on the relationship between the particular, the special and the general, and define it as the highest form of sensory comprehension of the world (the particular), which contains noospheric generalizations (the general), interpreted through the creative language of art and emotionally colored attitude to the individual to life (the special).
The particular is defined in relation to the general and the individual, and provides a transition from thesis to antithesis, and from there to synthesis – a description of the main features of students’ noospheric education. The general is characterized as a combination of certain groups of objects, indicators, and connections that help to identify noospheric patterns in the knowledge of nature, the world, the universe, and humanity . These categories allow for a deeper understanding of the noospheric significance of the objects of study and take into account the true context of education.
The main method of studying this phenomenon is an educational experiment, which is conducted to study cause and effect relationships and includes modeling and active influence on the process of forming noospheric ideas with the help of technology. The following criteria for the formation of noospheric concepts in students have been identified: imagery, emotionality, originality and abstraction. Their choice is due to the definition of “noospheric representations” and the single, special and general categories presented in it. Appropriate methods were applied to each criterion. The criterion of imagination is characterized by the ability to single out the singular, associated with a vivid, picturesque and expressive description and depiction of noosphere objects. The methods applied to this criterion were the points accumulated by all students. Non-verbal, quantitative characteristics of the strength of emotions were assessed on a six-point scale:
x1 (very strong, vivid)
x3 (not very strong);
х4 (not very weak);
х6 (very weak).
Emotional assessments and judgments were determined using 12 pairs of adjectives that express the emotional state of students. The following descriptors were chosen (the quality of adequacy was the ratio of the highest adequacy score (3 points) to the total score):
1. Beautiful 3+2+1-1-2-3 Simple
2. Cheerful (joyful) 3+2+1-1-2-3 Sad
3. Kind 3+2+1-1-2-3 Evil
4. Bright (sonorous) 3+2+1-1-2-3 Boring
5. Light 3+2+1-1-2-3 Dark
6. Quiet 3+2+1-1-2-3 Loud
7. Warm 3+ 2+2+1-1-2-3 Cold
8. Soft 3+2+1-1-2-3 Rough
9. Gentle 3+2+1-1-2-3 Harsh
10. Light weight 3+2+1-1-2-3 Heavy
11. Pleasant 3+2+1-1-2-3 Unpleasant
12. Amazing 3+2+1-1-2-3 Ordinary
The expression used to describe it – 0.5 points, the animal world and the transmission of its emotional state through expressive means – 0.75 points, the richness of abstract spiritual concepts and values as a unity of audio and visual images – 1 point. The Abstraction criterion is determined by the ability to find the general, analyze and generalize noospheric indicators, determine the main noospheric idea of the proposed situation, comprehend its spiritual, ethical and aesthetic value.
The main noospheric idea that defines one’s own position determines the expressive means that allow one to comprehend the situation at hand. On the basis of all the criteria, four levels of formation of noospheric ideas among university students were identified: high, above average, average and low – 25-30, 20-24, 15-19 and 0-10 points, respectively.
The structural and functional component of the technology included forms, methods and means of forming noospheric concepts in students through assets in the process of implementing the author’s program. The main types of practical classes were collective, group and individual classes. In the process of implementing the author’s program, students developed two-component and three-component integrated tasks for their classmates, where they included different degrees of interaction of activities; created projects, such as the “noospheric idea of unity” in the work of famous personalities of Ukraine and the world.
In the process of implementing the author’s program, the following active teaching methods were used: research (observation), verbal and non-verbal, creative (theory of inventive problem solving, monotype for describing nature, case method).
The formation of knowledge in students using the traditional approach by all criteria at the defining stage of the experiment was at medium and low levels. The introduction of noospheric education as a bio-adequate methodology provoked changes in all criteria – the results were obtained at high, above average and low levels, which indicates the effectiveness of the developed technology for the formation of noospheric concepts in students of higher education institutions based on the categories of the individual, the special and the general. The genesis of the subject of the study made it possible to clarify the content of noospheric concepts in students of higher educational institutions based on the categories of the individual, the particular and the general, and to consider this phenomenon as the highest form of sensory reflection of the world, which contains the possibility of noospheric generalizations, which are considered through the creative language of science and the emotionally colored attitude of an individual to life. Their specificity was determined by the understanding of the idea of the unity of man and nature, the world, and the cosmos.
The results obtained at the defining stage of the experiment allow us to conclude that they depend on the students’ ability to:
a) to describe noospheric objects and phenomena in a figurative and expressive way, to characterize the student’s personal attitude to noospheric phenomena, in connection with the intensity of expression of emotions and feelings, based on the identification of the singular;
b) to create unique, vivid images related to their uniqueness and the student’s subjective vision of the problem;
c) to analyze and summarize the indicators of noospherism based on the manifestations of the universal.
The following criteria were defined: imagination, emotionality, originality, abstraction; appropriate methods were used and levels were determined (high, above average, average, low), which made it possible to study students’ noospheric perceptions in depth and comprehensively. The experiment revealed regularities in the ratio of the individual, the particular and the general in students’ noospheric insights. Mostly, students singled out the singular, somewhat more common and the least special. This is due to their unpreparedness for systematization and generalization of sensory images, and their ability to engage in independent creative and research activities.
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