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The article updates the problem of peculiarities of educational institution management in the context of humanization. The essence of facilitative management is revealed, which allows maintaining a balance between goals and results and the capabilities of real people and methods of activity. The approach to management from the position of leadership is highlighted. Their advantages and disadvantages are identified.
Keywords: educational institution, management, manager, facilitator, leader.

Marmaza O. I.
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor,
H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

The genesis of the theory and practice of management shows a steady trend of psychologization of management activities, attention to the “human” factor, development of subject-subject relations in the team.

The processes of humanization of education have led to the renewal of the socio-psychological functions of the head of the institution; rethinking of his/her status, role and style of management.

In the context of humanistic management, the facilitative approach becomes relevant.

The purpose of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of managing an educational institution in the context of humanization and to reveal the essence of facilitative management, which allows maintaining a balance between the goals and results and the capabilities of real people and ways of doing things.

A facilitative manager (“facilitator” from the English word “facilitate” – to facilitate, to facilitate; the one who makes life easier) is a manager-leader who creates a team, instills corporate principles in the organization, implements a motivational approach to management and a culture of business communication.

Facilitative management makes it possible to maintain a certain balance between the goals and results to be achieved and the capabilities of real people and the ways to achieve them [2]. A leader who acts as a facilitator does not teach, but directs the team in the necessary business and creative direction.

The facilitator approach of the head of an educational institution is realized through:
– knowledge of the characteristics of the team and employees;
– ability to organize effective teamwork;
– ability to quickly gain trust and leadership positions in the team;
– ability to help teachers establish partnerships, develop
ability to help teachers establish partnerships, develop interaction and constructive communication skills;
– ability to analyze and reflect;
– clear understanding of the goals and desired results of the team’s activities;
– maintaining enthusiasm, sense of humor, intuitive sense, and sincere attitude towards people;
– the ability to put people in situations where they need to make independent decisions, determine the methods and content of activities;
– ability to encourage and morally support even minor successes of teachers.

Such facilitative behavior indicates the leader’s desire to reach an agreement with all members of the teaching staff, and demonstrates not only his or her formal leadership, but also functional leadership. A functional leader is someone who is chosen by people to represent their interests and help them achieve their goals and success.

A leader is a person who, due to his or her personal traits, has a predominant influence on the team. To this day, the concepts of “leader” and “manager” are still recognized as related in some pedagogical and management publications.

It should be noted that the main difference lies in the fact that a manager is not always a leader in his or her organization. Management is related to the effective organization of activities, and leadership is related to the ability to influence staff to work effectively.

Leadership is a power that cannot be delegated. A leader cannot be appointed. A leader is a manager who has the power of authority, which is associated with the voluntary recognition of the leader’s supremacy by the staff. This is a person who is proactive, internally free and strong, who can lead [1].

To become a leader, it is necessary to achieve a certain level of culture, education, professionalism, life experience, and inner maturity. This is based on constant work on oneself, development of one’s own potential.

It is believed that a leader cannot be created, because he creates himself.

Leadership is based on the values of the leader, which are defined as a set of knowledge, skills and beliefs that determine a specific choice of behavior.

A leader’s external system of values is determined by his or her education, understanding of his or her profession, the mission and activities of the organization, its history and culture, and an understanding of the nature and importance of the products and services provided by the organization.

The internal values of a manager consist of such groups of factors as: a) achievement (mastery of professional functions); b) economic (material and financial assistance in accordance with the standards of living, according to the class of society); c) psychological comfort (career, status, health insurance, pension fund); d) well-being (health, safety, wealth, education, respect); e) moral (justice, kindness, goodwill, decency, tolerance) [1].

Leadership is about improving interpersonal relationships, developing employees’ abilities, promoting activity, fostering responsibility and independence of team members, and transforming unclear ideas into clear goals.

Leadership is the art of choosing the optimal management style and taking into account situations. Leadership behavior is focused on the success of the business and the achievements of the team, and is supportive. Therefore, leadership can be effective in a facilitative management environment, as a person in an organization manifests himself or herself not only as a performer of a certain job or a certain function. They show interest in how their work is organized, in what conditions they work, and how their work affects the organization’s activities. In other words, she has a natural desire to participate in the processes of the organization that are related to her own activities in the organization.

The characteristics of a managerial leader and facilitator are associated with the ability to improve the culture of communication. Communication culture is an important professional trait of the head of an educational institution, as communication is one of the main means of realizing professional tasks. Only a leader with a high level of business communication culture is able to express his/her views correctly and convincingly; establish favorable relationships with teachers, students, parents, and members of the public; creatively and productively solve various problems and conflicts; contribute to the formation of a positive social and psychological climate and harmonization of interpersonal relationships in the team.

However, there is also a downside to the facilitative behavior of the leader: sometimes teachers perceive the reduction of the distance between them and the leader as weakness, inability to solve problems independently, liberalism and flirting with the team; sometimes the team even supports an informal leader with authoritarian behavior as someone who can restore order.

Therefore, a leader must keep in mind the distance between him or her and subordinates. The length of the distance is measured by such indicators as: the ability to object to the leader; forms of communication; requirements for professional activity and behavior of teachers; the presence of common goals, etc. Keeping an optimal distance is a skill of management and a sense of proportion. Thus, the problem of implementing facilitative management is determined not only by the ability of the leader to be a facilitator, but also by the general level of culture of the teaching staff.

Thus, the facilitative approach is aimed at developing the business and creative activity of teachers, allows to form the corporate spirit and the system of values of the pedagogical organization in the context of humanistic trends in society and the education system.

List of references

1. Marmaza O. I. Effective leadership as a tool for strategic management. Pedagogy of forming a creative personality in higher and secondary schools: a collection of scientific articles: KPU, 2013. Issue 29 (82). С. 289-297.
2. Innovations in education management. Kharkiv: Osnova, 2019. 160 с.