Visits: 15

THE PROBLEM OF FORMING THE SPIRITUAL CULTURE OF LEARNERS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CLASSES

The article reveals the relevance of the formation of spiritual culture in primary school age, defines the content of the concept of “spiritual culture” and outlines the role of the teacher in this process of its formation; reveals the creation of conditions that will contribute to the formation of spiritual culture in students; characterizes the directions of the teacher’s work that will influence the spiritual culture of students.
Keywords: students, spiritual culture, teacher.

Smolianiuk N. M.
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Domylivska Y.
is a student of the first (bachelor’s) level of higher education,
H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

10.34142//2708-4809.SIUTY.2022.131

The State Standard of Primary Education defines that the comprehensive development of a child’s personality is a key task based on such value orientations as the uniqueness and giftedness of the child, consideration of age characteristics, joy of learning, independence, creation of conditions for harmonious development, favorable atmosphere, respect for the state, education of honesty, courage, perseverance, kindness, compassion, etc. The outlined tasks and ensuring the conditions for their implementation will create a favorable environment for the formation of students’ spiritual culture.

Purposeful influence on the spiritual world of primary school students can be a rather lengthy process, the outcome of which largely depends on the teacher. Today, as never before, there is an urgent need to talk about spirituality, since the children’s environment – movies, books, works of art – is dominated by a gloomy, brave to the point of cruelty, indifferent, cynical hero. Cruelty is becoming the norm for a large number of children, and they often display it at school. Therefore, it is the teacher who must organize the educational process in such a way as to maximize the impact on the child’s spiritual development, feelings, and actions.

The issue of spirituality and the peculiarities of its formation in children was the focus of attention of such prominent teachers as: O. Hilyarov, I. Ogienko, S. Rusova, I. Sikorsky, H. Skovoroda. The social aspects of spirituality are reflected in the works of H. Bykovska, T. Butkovska, V. Kriuchkov, V. Pavlov, V. Riaboklyach, and I. Chernova. The study of N. Osadcha, who investigated the issue of emotional literacy of schoolchildren through the prism of the formation of the child’s spiritual culture, is valuable.

H. Skovoroda wrote that a person is born twice: physically and spiritually.

At the spiritual cradle are spiritual mentors – first the family, and then the teacher, who becomes the child’s second father, mother, because he instills in his soul the high moral qualities of faith, hope, love, deep respect for his native land, his family, people, and state [4]. The thinker argued that it is spirituality that unites universal values, reunites man with the cosmic universe, and expands his responsibility [3].

Under the definition of “spirituality” A. Bogush [1] understands a kind of intellectual, sensual, emotional state of a person, which is manifested in positive behavior and activity of a person and characterizes his or her integrity as a person. R. Okhrimchuk and N. Berdyaev [3] interpret the concept of “spirituality” as “…the freedom to create oneself and culture…“.

In our opinion, the main task facing the teacher of the new Ukrainian school is to create conditions for the full mastery of the multifaceted potential of both Ukrainian and world spirituality and culture. It is extremely important to create an environment for the comprehensive self-realization of the spiritual and cultural potential, the essential forces of a person, and his or her own spiritual outlook and worldview.

We see one of the directions of work in solving the problem of forming spiritual culture in modern primary schoolchildren in a comprehensive and constant influence on the child, which can be achieved through pedagogical partnership (teacher – child – parents) [5]; another is the implementation of a systematic and systematic approach in combining various activities of lesson and extracurricular work.

This opinion is based on organizing and conducting joint leisure activities for students and parents (holding joint events, encouraging personal initiative of parents participating in the life of the classroom team, organizing mutual creativity of students and parents) [5]. The main priority is to unite students and parents of the class into a single team, to create a large friendly family. The teacher’s task is to create an educational environment in which parents will be happy and interested in attending meetings and participating in joint activities.

Another area of work is based on the formation of spiritual values through the content of the curriculum in various subjects and extracurricular activities. Younger students are happy to plunge into the world of distance learning, role-playing, various contests and quizzes, sports competitions, and join social projects (“My Vyshyvanka, Vyshyvanka”; “We Remember and Appreciate”; “Ukraine is a Territory of Dignity and Freedom”; “Helping Stray Animals”; “I and You Are Children”; “A Gift for a Friend” and other educational activities and projects).

It is important that children do not just learn the educational material, but “pass” it through themselves to achieve the expected result, for which it is advisable to use situational modeling. Involvement of children in various types of extracurricular activities will help to unite the team and form the spiritual culture of the individual. At primary school age, children are very inquisitive, they are interested in everything that happens around them, so you just need to make the educational process emotionally attractive.

The first teacher will certainly determine what the spiritual world of the student will be filled with, because, as V. Sukhomlynsky said:

“…the teacher is the first and main luminary in the intellectual life of a schoolchild; he or she awakens in the child a thirst for knowledge, respect for science, culture, education…” [6].

List of references

1. Bogush A. M. Definitions of “spirituality” and “morality” in the aspect of national education in Ukraine. Moral and spiritual development of personality in modern conditions. 2000. P. 18-23.
2. State standard of primary education. 2018 URL: https://www.dano.dp.ua/attachments/article8.pdf (accessed September 25, 2022).
3. Encyclopedia of Education / edited by V. Kremen. Kyiv: Yurinkom Inter, 2008. 1040 p.
4. Skovoroda G. S. Works: in 2 vols. Kyiv: Oberegi, 1994. VOL. 2. PP. 7-112.
5. Smolianiuk N., Domylivska Y. P. Pedagogical interaction with parents of primary school students on the CLASS DOJO platform. Scientific trends of the post-industrial society : mat. II international scientific conference, Zaporizhzhia, December 3. 2021 Vinnytsia: European Scientific Platform, 2021. Т. 3. P. 47-49.
6. Sukhomlynsky V. O. One hundred tips for a teacher. Selected works: in 5 vols. Kyiv: Soviet school, 1977. VOL. 2. PP. 419-654.