ABOUT THE CONTENT OF INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE SYSTEM OF SPIRITUAL AND INTELLECTUAL UPBRINGING AND TEACHING
The article considers the content of intellectual development in the system of spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching – its features that complement traditional approaches and form in students abilities and qualities that significantly increase human performance in solving life problems, especially in communication.
Keywords: intellectual development, logic, mental structure, concentration, spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching.
Khvostychenko O. M.
Candidate of Military Sciences, Associate Professor,
World Scientific Noosphere-Ontological Society, Kharkiv, Ukraine
Along with spiritual development , intellectual development in the system of spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching  traditionally occupies an important place. Considerable attention is paid to this area of development in the general education system. All subjects of both the school curriculum and higher education disciplines work on intellectual development, primarily developing memory and logic.
At the same time, in the system of spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching, intellectual development has its own peculiarities, identified by many years of research and practice. We will consider them in more detail.
Intellectual development includes: memory development; development of logic and multivariate reasoning; formation of concepts and connections of mental structures; development of attention.
Why is it necessary to develop multivariate reasoning along with logic? Logic is based on rigid algorithms. They can branch out under different conditions, but eventually lead to a single solution. At the same time, from our own experience, consciousness often produces ready-made solutions, and often not the best ones. So that a person does not repeatedly find himself in the situation of “We wanted to do better, but it turned out as usual”.
better, but it turned out as usual,” the task is to teach them multivariance-the ability to develop different ways in a creative search. Learning how to do things differently, for example, how people who are authoritative to me would do it, is necessary to achieve a practical result. Various methods are used for this purpose, including the redistribution of forces and means.
Each option will be logical, but not similar to the previous one. When working through the options, new details may be revealed that were not previously taken into account. All of this allows you to see the process in a deeper and larger scale, to choose the best option in terms of critical indicators, such as budget, time, and the forces involved. When a person has developed one solution and already thinks it is the best, but needs to develop other options, this is where the development of intelligence begins, and it is not easy to do.
There is enough literature on the development of memory, logic, and attention that describes effective techniques – they are used and get good results.
Another feature is related to the purposeful formation of so-called mental structures – concepts and information links between them . Often, people use words out of habit or by copying others that they do not fully understand. And if you ask them to define a particular concept, they often get lost, and when they think about it, they sometimes discover this concept from a completely different angle. This is mostly important for concepts that express human values. The task is to learn how to give words the most complete definitions for which no other word fits, excluding complete synonyms, and at the same time presenting all the details of this concept or phenomenon and its connections with other related ones.
This task is complicated by the presence of various spiritual problems. If the concept under consideration touches upon painful issues, some false beliefs, it causes a person to have a negative emotional reaction: protest, indignation, etc. to aggression – everything that causes unpleasant feelings, mental pain. In such a situation, people tend to brush this issue aside and avoid discussing it, making it impossible and painful to learn about it. That is why it is important to teach people how to treat information correctly and work with it in three steps:
Step one is to learn to perceive any information emotionlessly, detachedly, as if from above, without relating it to oneself, to one’s existing attitude. When emotions are involved, it is difficult for a person to think – the intellect is blocked, and stereotypical subconscious programs work.
Nothing should interfere with the study of the concept of intelligence. In the end, a person must understand how much he or she needs it, whether it leads to happiness, perfection, or whether it is a provocation that leads in the other direction. It’s irrational to evaluate based on the principle of “like – dislike”.
Step two is to make a decision: I need it, it meets my goals, I want it, and I will deepen this knowledge. You need to set your heart (attitude) and intellect to develop, to find all the answers.
The third step is to deepen the knowledge to the point of conviction (the actual formation of a mental structure) so that the knowledge can be applied in life and produce practical results.
The technique of forming a mental structure consists of answering seven questions in writing about the concept under study:
1. General description: what it is, part of what (love is a feeling).
2. Purpose: why, its functions – what it does.
3. Motivation: why do I need it, what does it give me, why does it serve, what goals and tasks does it allow me to solve.
4. Structure: what it consists of – parts, mechanisms, internal connections.
5. Classification: what are the types – types according to different criteria of differences.
6. Use: conclusions – decisions on what to do, how.
7. Results: examples – positive and negative.
The consolidation and reinforcement is carried out through images – to depict a diagram/drawing: a) according to the content of points 1, 4, 5; b) image-metaphor (comparison, plus 1-3 comments) .
According to this scheme, all the basic concepts are worked out, starting with the most important ones for a person. At the initial stage, it is advisable to perform 20-30 minutes/day, then as needed. Criteria for understanding: the joy of feeling understood; easily forming images, conclusions, examples; making a decision – “from now on, I will do this…, do that…”, etc. In essence, this is a self-programming technique – the first tool for forming one’s ideas and thinking in general. As a result of the technique, a unit of thinking is formed – a mental structure: a detailed system of elements and their connections, interconnection with other concepts from life. It is also important to regularly expand your vocabulary by passing new words through the technique.
In this context, development is the realization of the acquired knowledge in such a way that the understanding of dignity becomes a personal quality.
The third feature is the development of attention – learning the ability to concentrate one’s attention on the subject or process under study.
Concentration is trained through the technique of non-movement: in a fixed, relaxed position, look at one point without blinking for several minutes to several hours (to avoid dry eyes, use moisturizing eye drops). A complication is not to blink while moving, doing ordinary things, then while communicating, speaking in public.
Observations of groups that have been trained using this system show a significant increase in students’ effectiveness in solving various life tasks, especially in communication. This gives grounds for the wider implementation of the proposed techniques in the education system, continuing research in this area and the search for new even more effective methods.
List of references
1. On the content of spiritual development in the system of spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching. Spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching of youth in the XXI century : international periodicals / edited by V. P. Babych, Y. D. Boychuk, L. S. Rybalko, O. M. Khvostychenko. Kharkiv: VNNOT, 2022. Issue 4. С. 592-595.
2. Khvostychenko O. M., Trusei L. G., Serdiuk O. D., Bezdiko O. V. The concept of the education system “DIVO-21” – “Spiritual and Intellectual upbringing and teaching in the XXI century”. Spiritual and Intellectual upbringing and teaching of Youth in the XXI Century : International Collection of Scientific Papers / edited by V. P. Babych. Kharkiv: VNNOT, 2020. Issue 2. pp. 9-34.
3. Mianie M. Y. Human Consciousness. Kharkiv: Sozidanie, 2007. 192 с.