PSYCHO-CORRECTIVE TRAINING AS A FORM OF SPIRITUAL AND INTELLECTUAL UPBRINGING AND TEACHING
The article reveals the concept of training as a form of spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching of adolescents. The peculiarities of training interpretation in pedagogical and psychological science are described. The bases of classification of trainings for general secondary education institutions are highlighted. The structure and importance of psychocorrectional training for students are analyzed.
Keywords: training, psychocorrectional training, types and components of training.
Senovska N. L.
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Ternopil V. Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
Naumovych Y. Y.
PhD student of the second (educational and scientific) level of higher education,
Ternopil Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine
In the context of spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching of adolescents in general secondary education institutions, training can be considered a universal form of work.
The word “training” comes from the English “to train”, which means “to teach, train, train”. This concept originated in the nineteenth century in medicine as a type of psychotherapy. In the twentieth century, trainings became widespread in professional education (as a form of training) and practical psychology (as a tool for human development). “Training is both an interesting process of cognition of oneself and others, and communication, and an effective form of knowledge acquisition, a tool for developing skills, a form of expanding experience” [4, p. 107].
The very idea of group work with people for the purpose of personal change and improvement of various skills was realized by pedagogy in parallel (or earlier) with awareness in medical and psychological practice [5, p. 27].
Training as a form of educational activity contributes to the formation and development of important knowledge, skills, abilities, qualities and personality traits; enables its participants to develop forms of behavior associated with high self-regulation, self-control, self-confidence and self-reliance, responsibility, activity and independence. Training in pedagogy is an interesting process of learning about oneself and others, an effective form of knowledge acquisition, and a tool for developing skills. “As a rule, participants are delighted with training methods, because these methods make the learning process interesting, not burdensome” [2, p. 2].
Most often, in studies related to the field of education, the concept of “training” is interpreted as a form of interactive learning aimed at developing interpersonal and professional behavior. “Training is a special type of learning through direct “living” and awareness of the experience arising in interpersonal interaction, which is not reduced to traditional learning through the transfer of knowledge, nor to psychological counseling or psychotherapy” .
There is no universal classification of trainings for general secondary education institutions. They can be divided into types depending on the main goal, tasks, contingent, number of participants, duration, presence of one or more trainers, type of management, technical support, etc. Most often, schools use personal (psycho-corrective) trainings.
Psycho-correctional training is aimed at changing the mental sphere of an individual; the ultimate goal is to improve self-awareness, behavior or professional activity of people (groups); such trainings are organized for adolescents, high school students and their parents. The following types can be distinguished:
1) social and psychological training – a way to develop competencies in communication;
2) perceptual training – development of skills and abilities to know and understand oneself and others
3) personal growth training – work on deep attitudes aimed at spiritual and professional growth.
Any training session for students, regardless of the type and purpose of the training, has three components: introduction, main part, and final part. Each of them has its own semantic and emotional load and consists of appropriate exercises.
Introductory part. Greetings, introductions, information about the topic, purpose, objectives, content and final result of the training, announcement of the rules of work. Participants can get acquainted in the form of a game or in the classical way, but the game form helps to relieve psychological stress and stiffness.
The main part. This part contains practical exercises that were planned to be worked out using interactive teaching methods. The main task is to work on oneself in the conditions of constant interaction of all training participants. The use of interactive methods involves modeling life situations, using role-playing and business games, and joint problem solving. “In order to reveal the content of the topic, active and interactive methods, expert assessments and consultations, practical examples and experience, and recommendations for solving problems should be used. The content of the main part should be as closely related as possible to the present, processes and phenomena taking place in the immediate social environment of the participants, and arouse their interest” [3, p. 37].
The final part. Summarizing, answering questions, evaluating the achievement of training goals. Evaluation takes place in a circle with the help of feedback. There are the following forms and methods of training evaluation:
1) sharings – consists in receiving feedback from participants during the training;
2) debriefing – a final discussion of the exercises and summarizing the results;
3) questionnaires at the end of the training;
4) questionnaires after a certain period of time to study how the acquired knowledge, skills and abilities are applied [3, p. 38].
The undoubted advantage of training sessions is that during them, each student has the opportunity to feel the care and attention of others, they can trust and rely on their help. This improves the quality of skills development and helps them find the positive in people and the world around them. Accordingly, trainings help adolescents and high school students to live actively and fully in society in the future.
Thus, psycho-corrective training as a form of spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching of schoolchildren makes it possible to form and consolidate the following types of value-oriented behavior in adolescents
1) equal full-fledged communication based on trust and mutual respect of the participants;
2) awareness and formulation of their own problems;
3) harmonization of intellectual and emotional spheres;
4) the desire to know oneself and other people.
The main thing here is not the form, but the content, which should respond to the real needs of students, regardless of which areas of the educational process (upbringing, education, development) they relate to.
List of references
1. Vakhotska I. O. Training technologies in the educational process. Modern training technologies for personality development: eco-training: a collection of scientific articles: https://nubip.edu.ua/sites/default/files/u279/zbirnik_14.05.2020.pdf (accessed 02.11.2022).
2. Gracheva N. M. Methods of conducting trainings: method. mat. Kharkiv: HONB, 2013. 18 с.
3. Karpenko E. Organization of training in communication with children of different ages: methodical material for practical classes. Drohobych: Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, 2016. 145 с.
4. Milchevska GS, El Khatry G, Malyutina N. Training work in educational institutions and in the community. Pedagogy of forming a creative personality in higher and secondary schools. 2020. Issue # 69, Vol. 1, pp. 106-110. URL: http://www.pedagogy-journal.kpu.zp.ua/archive/2020/69/part_1/23.pdf;
5. Shevchuk O. M. Organization and methods of social and pedagogical training: a textbook. Uman: PP Yellow, 2011. 133 с.