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DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLECT OF CHILDREN OF SENIOR PRESCHOOL AGE

The article considers the views on the terminological concept of “emotional intelligence” in modern scientific thought; the meaning and peculiarities of the formation of emotional intelligence in the senior preschool age; analyzes and outlines the forms, methods, techniques and means of developing emotional intelligence in children of the senior preschool age.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional sphere of personality, preschoolers, senior preschool age.

Kirilenko A. O.
PhD student of the second (master’s) level of higher education,
Volodymyr Vynnychenko Central Ukrainian State Pedagogical University, Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine

Prybora T. O.
Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor,
Volodymyr Vynnychenko Central Ukrainian State Pedagogical University, Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine

10.34142//2708-4809.SIUTY.2022.88

Today’s child development is shifted towards the intellectual growth of the individual. Both teachers and parents make efforts for the mental development of the child, focusing the content of the educational process on the acquisition of new knowledge, skills and abilities, while paying insufficient attention to the development of the emotional sphere of the preschool child.

Another problem today is the lack of emotional communication between children and parents for various reasons. This leads to the underdevelopment of the child’s emotional sphere: misunderstanding and suppression of their emotions in the future, inability to feel the emotions of others, etc. In view of this, the development of a child’s emotional intelligence is an urgent issue of our time.

Researchers Klevaka L., Hryshko O. and Zaika V. define “emotional intelligence” as an integral property of a personality that can reflect his or her cognitive ability to perceive and realize emotions, as well as manage these emotions through the cognitive processing of emotional information, provide psychological comfort and promote social communication [4, p. 3].

M. Shpak also considers emotional intelligence as an integrative quality and adds that it is determined by the dynamic unity of affect and reason through the interconnection of emotional, cognitive, behavioral and motivational features; it provides emotion management, subordination to reason and, most importantly, promotes self-knowledge and self-realization of the individual by enriching his or her emotional and social experience [9, p. 202].

The essence of the concept of “emotional intelligence” is also considered by K. Borysenko and S. Bader, defining it as “the ability to understand one’s emotions” and the emotions of others, “to express and manage them correctly… which will contribute to effective interaction, building an adequate system of relationships” [1, p. 49].

Polovina O. agrees with this definition and emphasizes that emotional intelligence is an indicator of the formation of emotional competence, and its level of formation indicates the ability of positive or negative interpersonal interaction [7, p. 24].

According to the results of an experimental study by M. Shpak, it was determined that it is in older preschoolers that emotional intelligence is socialized, which is manifested in its emotional focus mainly on people rather than on certain objects, and the ability to empathize, although still unstable, is developing. A senior preschooler can already show empathy and compassion, which contributes to the development of emotional intelligence [9, p. 203-205].

To these peculiarities of emotional development of senior preschool children we can add the following, highlighted by Trofaila N.: formation of “emotional anticipation” of emotional reactions of other people to their actions, volitional regulation of emotional and behavioral reactions due to the assessment of preschooler’s actions by others, difficulty of restraining emotional reactions to certain situations, difficulty of subordination to certain social norms [8, p. 37; 39; 43].

In the structure of emotional intelligence of a personality, the following components are distinguished: self-awareness and empathy (perception and expression of emotions); self-reflection (understanding the meaning of different emotions); self-regulation (emotional control); stimulation of thinking (adequate decision-making) [3, p. 110].

According to Kosenko Y., preschool children perceive and cognize the surrounding reality “emotionally and sensually”, and their interpersonal communication with society is influenced by positive and negative emotions. Therefore, the preschool educator needs to create favorable conditions for the development of the emotional sphere of preschool children, to create an opportunity to identify their own feelings, support the emotional perception of the surrounding reality, which will stimulate their cognitive and creative activity, promote the development of mental processes and personal qualities [5, p. 161].

In addition to creating these favorable conditions, the educator should build purposeful work on the development of emotional intelligence of the senior preschooler. For this purpose, there is a wide variety of forms, methods, techniques and means. First of all, let us consider the forms of work on the development of emotional intelligence.

Volik N. identifies the following forms of work with older preschoolers: “morning meetings”, regime moments, game and problem situations, training; thematic days and weeks, etc.

Polovina O. considers the most effective methods of development of preschoolers’ emotional intelligence. O. Polovina considers the following: mindfulness practice – familiarizes with the capabilities of the mind, teaches to concentrate attention, control it, be aware of bodily reactions, understand own emotions; various art techniques – give an outlet to aggression, according to socially accepted norms, help to realize suppressed emotions; emotional coaching – communication in which adults show empathy, help to cope with negative emotions; fairy tale therapy – helps to develop self-awareness and build contact with others [7, p. 29].

Researcher Melnyk N. sees the development of preschoolers’ emotional intelligence in the use of the following methods: motivation to empathy (awakening emotional reactions through empathy of the emotional conditions of another); method of emotional and figurative influence (motivation to convey emotional experiences in figurative embodiment); vocabulary method; game method (in the course of performing roles, ways of expressing emotions and expressive actions are enriched) [6, p. 72].

The researcher also considers the following methods of work on the development of preschoolers’ emotional intelligence, which can be used both within the framework of these methods and in other activities: creating an emotionally rich background, contrasting comparisons, role interaction, which introduces emotional communication through mood-image, synthesis of arts, “color-mood” method, which makes it possible to express emotions through the use of color; the formula of emotional stability (repetition of sentences – emotional formulas), emotional massage [6, p. 72].

To implement these forms, methods and techniques, there is a wide variety of means of developing emotional intelligence, among which researchers pay attention to the following: “mood screen”, literature, mimic and finger gymnastics, games (sensory, didactic, role-playing, mobile, etc.), reconciliation, problem situations, psycho-gymnastic exercises, psychological sketches, drawing (including non-traditional methods), creative tasks, thematic drawings, musical pieces, physical education, competitions, entertainment, etc. [2, с. 11].

Thus, the development of preschoolers’ emotional intelligence should become one of the main priorities and directions of work of the IPE. Educators should build a system of work with children, using a variety of forms, methods, techniques and tools in all activities that will encourage the child to recognize and analyze their emotions and the emotions of others.

List of references

1. Borysenko K.Y., Bader S.O. Features of the development of emotional intelligence of senior preschool children. Scientific Bulletin of Uzhhorod University (Series: “Pedagogy. Social Work”). 2021. № 1 (48). С. 48-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24144/2524-0609.2021.48.48-52.
2. Volik N. The system of formation of emotional intelligence of senior preschool children in the conditions of preschool education. Acta Paedagogica Volynienses. 2022. № 2. С. 9-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32782/apv/2022.2.2.
3. Kirilova E., Bukhalo O. To the problem of forming the emotional intelligence of children of senior preschool age. Evolutionary processes in the field of preschool education: innovations, achievements, promising experience : mat. I All-Ukrainian Internet conf. of teachers, students, aspirants and young scientists, Mariupol, November 27. 2020 р. 2020. С. 109-113.
4. Development of emotional intelligence of preschool children. Technologies of intelligence development. 2022. Т. 6. № 1 (31). С. 74-89.
5. Ensuring the emotional development of preschoolers: training of teachers at the stage of professional training. Scientific Notes of Berdiansk State Pedagogical University (Series “Pedagogical Sciences”). 2018. № 1. С. 159-164.
6. Emotional development of personality as a basis for the formation of emotional intelligence of preschool children. Scientific Bulletin of Mykolaiv National University named after V. O. Sukhomlynskyi (Series “Pedagogical Sciences”). 2018. №4. С. 69-74.
7. Polovina O. (2018) Early childhood development: the need of society or parental ambitions? Educator-methodologist of the preschool institution. 2018. № 10. С. 23-31.
8. Trofaila N. D. Preparation of future educators for the emotional development of preschool children : Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences : 13.00.08. Uman, 2019. 270 с.
9. Shpak M. M. Formation of emotional intelligence in preschool age as a prerequisite for its development in primary schoolchildren. Scientific Notes of the National University of Ostroh Academy (Series “Psychology”). 2016. № 4. С. 196-205.