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DEVELOPMENT OF COMPARATIVE STUDIES IN THE USA (50S OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY)

The article analyzes the main factors that contributed to the development of comparative studies in the United States in the 1950s. These include: the signing of the National Science Foundation Act, the development of university education, the opening of special departments of comparative pedagogy and the publication of journals, the establishment of various scientific societies and organizations, and some others.
Keywords: comparative studies, development, USA.

Kuznetsova O. Yu.
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor,
Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Stefan L. A.
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor,
H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Fazan V. V.
Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor,
Poltava V. G. Korolenko National Pedagogical University, Poltava, Ukraine

10.34142//2708-4809.SIUTY.2022.197

The analysis of the generalization of scientific and pedagogical sources shows that the development of comparative pedagogical research in the United States at the studied stage was facilitated by the signing of the National Science Foundation Act (1950), which was aimed at

– establishing a national center for researchers;
– comprehensive support for scientific research and programs at any level;
– encouraging the exchange of ideas between US scientists and colleagues from around the world;
– awarding scholarships to researchers with significant achievements in the natural sciences;
– promoting the introduction of various methods of scientific knowledge and technologies for the purpose of scientific research and development [1].

Of great importance for the development of comparative studies in the United States in the 1950s was university education, which tested programs in the field and created special departments of comparative pedagogy. Such departments were established at Stanford, Harvard, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, and other American universities.

Their activities consisted of conducting various comparative pedagogical studies that contributed to the reform of the educational system in the United States. These reforms included: extending the period of compulsory education; involving all segments of the population without exception in secondary education; and modernizing school education [2].

It should also be emphasized that international exchanges of students and teachers were facilitated by various agencies. In particular, in the second half of the twentieth century, these tasks were successfully solved by such a well-known American organization as the Peace Corps. The program of this association provides for the solution of such tasks as

– helping people in different countries to meet their needs for quality personnel;
– promoting a better understanding of the American education system by other nations and vice versa [1].

The development of comparative studies in the United States was also facilitated by the creation of a special Society of Comparative Education (1956). Representatives of this Society visited schools and universities in foreign countries (Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, and England).

The intensive development of comparative studies in the United States was also associated with the preparation and publication by the Society of a professional journal called the Comparative Education Review, which gained well-deserved popularity among comparative scholars around the world.

It should also be emphasized that the development of comparative studies in the 1950s was also associated with the activities of such national and international societies as: The Society for Comparative Education and International Education of the United States, the Center for Research and Innovation in Education, and the American Association of Comparative Education. The successful organization of comparative pedagogical research was facilitated by the establishment of departments at leading American universities – Michigan, Chicago and California.

It was in the 50s of the twentieth century that scientists (G. Noah and M. Eckstein) developed a structure for organizing comparative pedagogical research, which included the following stages:

– identification of the problem;
– definition of preliminary hypotheses;
– clarification of concepts and indicators;
– determination of the objects of research;
– accumulation of data and their processing;
– comparison of the results with the hypothesis and formulation of certain theoretical provisions [3, p. 93-176].

It should be emphasized that the main tasks of various societies and associations that dealt with comparative pedagogical issues included

– studying the peculiarities of the educational systems of the leading countries of the world;
– finding out the most effective methods of organizing comparative pedagogical research;
– a clear understanding of the educational systems operating in their own country;
– improving the teaching of comparative studies in colleges and universities;
– motivation to conduct research in the field of comparative studies;
– organizing the exchange of scholars and study of school education systems of the leading countries of the world;
– promoting publications and dissemination of information on the theory and practice of comparative pedagogy;
– conducting international research and exchange of documentation;
– cooperation with leading organizations and societies engaged in the study of comparative studies;
– organizing congresses and conferences on comparative pedagogy;
– organizing international training for teachers;
– foreseeing the possible consequences of introducing the educational system of one country in the conditions of another and some others [2].

According to the study, the development of comparative studies in the United States was significantly influenced by the activities of American charitable organizations, in particular, the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation. These foundations provided universities with financial assistance for organizing international research.

It is also worth noting that the establishment of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the opening of the Center for Research and Innovation in Education, which was actively engaged in publishing and was deservedly recognized among the leading centers that studied comparative studies, was crucial for the development of comparative pedagogy in the United States during the period under study [2].

The International Council of Comparative Education Societies, which was founded in Canada and had its regional society in America – the Society for Comparative and International Education of the United States – played a significant role in the development of comparative education in the United States in the 1950s [2]. This Council, with the support of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), held the first World Congress of Comparative Education Societies [2].

The development of comparative studies at this stage was closely connected with the organization of travel and observation, the publication of special journals on comparative pedagogy – “Review of Comparative Pedagogy”, “Education as an Investment in Comparative Perspective”, the main task of which was to highlight the results of the organization of the educational process in different countries, the search for effective models of education, clarification of the factors (political, economic, cultural, religious, etc.) that determined the level of education in a particular country [1].

It should also be noted that at the end of the period under study, there was a significant decrease in interest in comparative studies, which is associated with a general decline in the level of higher education in the country, the economic crisis in the United States, a significant reduction in foreign aid budgets, etc.

List of references

1. Arnove R. Comparative education and world systems analysis Comparative Education Review. 1980. February.
2. Bray M., Adamson B., Mason M. Comparative Education Research. Approaches and Methods. Comparative Education Research Center. The University of Hong Kong, 2007.
3. Noah H., Eckstein M. Toward. A Science of comparative education. New York, 1969.