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THE ROLE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

The article is devoted to the study of the essence and components of the teacher’s emotional intelligence. The article also discusses the role of teacher’s emotional intelligence in the development of students’ personality.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotions, communication, learning, personality, behavior.

Otroshko T. F.
Senior Lecturer,
Municipal Institution “Kharkiv Humanitarian and Pedagogical Academy”
Kharkiv Regional Council, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Polonska A. Y.
first (bachelor’s) level of higher education,
Municipal Institution “Kharkiv Humanitarian and Pedagogical Academy”
Kharkiv Regional Council, Kharkiv, Ukraine

10.34142//2708-4809.SIUTY.2022.175

Back in 1920, right after the first surge of interest in the then-new IQ tests, psychologist Edward Thorndike coined the term “social intelligence.” He defined it as “the ability to understand and lead others,” a skill that is useful to everyone [1].

Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand your emotions and manage them for the benefit of yourself and others.

A high level of emotional intelligence implies empathy for others, effective communication, self-awareness, and social awareness. The way we react to ourselves and others affects our work and home environments. At school, work, and elsewhere, there are interactions with different types of people, as well as constant changes and surprises. Being emotionally intelligent is key to how you respond to what life throws at you. It is also a key component of compassion and understanding the deeper reasons for other people’s actions [3].

The teacher’s personality contributes to the overall effectiveness of classroom learning. The way teachers process and respond to emotions, both their own and their students’, affects students’ achievement as well as their social and emotional development.

Teachers who lack emotional intelligence often find it difficult to work effectively with difficult students. For example, they are quick to resort to punishment instead of recognizing their students’ emotions and what triggers them. Being aware of students’ emotions would help them to respond with empathy when a student acts inappropriately and to change student behavior appropriately [4].

Emotionally intelligent educators are also more satisfied with their jobs, have better support, and can facilitate deeper learning and build stronger connections with students and their families.

Daniel Goleman has identified five components that are essential for emotional intelligence [1]:

self-awareness – the ability to recognize how you feel and understand how your emotions and actions can affect others;
self-regulation – the ability to regulate the emotions you feel, to manage them, knowing the appropriate time and way to express them;
motivation – understanding and desire to satisfy your own internal needs and goals;
empathy – understanding the feelings of another person; feeling what a person is feeling; responding sympathetically to the grief of others;
social skills – knowing what you feel, what others feel, and being able to communicate and interact effectively.

It is worth noting that Daniel Goleman calls self-awareness the first of his five emotional and social competencies. It is the basis for other competencies, such as self-regulation and empathy. The psychologist defines it as “knowing how we feel in the moment and using those preferences to guide our decisions,” having a realistic assessment of our own abilities and a well-founded sense of self-confidence” [2].

First, being aware of one’s own feelings as a teacher is a prerequisite not only for using emotional intelligence in the classroom, but also for self-learning and self-development. Teachers are encouraged to learn through reflection in order to become reflective practitioners. Attention to their own feelings is an important part of the process of engaging in successful reflective learning.

Secondly, to be an effective teacher, you need to “know” your students to some extent, but you cannot “know” others until you begin to know yourself. Parker J. Palmer emphasizes the importance of self-knowledge as a teacher. He emphasizes that knowing yourself is just as important for good teaching as knowing your students and the subject matter [2].

Third, behavior – behavior: manners, habits, non-verbal communication, etc. Awareness of this factor is important because if a teacher wants to influence the readiness and outcome of his or her students to learn, he or she will want to know how they perceive him or her and how it affects them.

Teachers can create an effective classroom through their will and motivation to make their students more knowledgeable in various subjects and skills. Teachers with high emotional intelligence tend to be better at motivating their students and understanding their students’ behavior and psychological state. They may also be more sensitive to their students’ “disruptive behaviors,” academic performance, and relationship management. They may be better able to cope with the various challenges that children face.

List of references

1. Goleman Daniel. Social intelligence / translated from English by Y. Lebedenko. Kharkiv: Family Leisure Club, 2020. P. 20, 153-159.
2. Mortiboys Alan. Teaching with Emotional Intelligence. A Step by Step Guide. Р. 99-105.
3. Emotional Intelligence & Kindness: Our Responses Make a Difference. URL: https://inspirekindness.com/blog/emotional-intelligence (accessed November 01, 2022).
4. How to improve emotional intelligence in teachers. URL: https://successinmotion4u.com/how-to-improve-emotional-intelligence-in-teachers/ (accessed November 01, 2022).