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THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF SPIRITUAL AND MORAL UPBRINGING OF THE CHILD

The culture of behavior and communication includes the achievements of upbringing and the level of development of the moral component of a person. Spiritual knowledge should find a form of embodiment in actions and communication, reflecting the depth of knowledge of moral norms and the ability to implement them. Therefore, the means of creating a moral culture are not only education, but also the development of skills, behavior, and organization of children’s activities.
Keywords: upbringing, spirituality, morality, moral qualities, development of a schoolchild

Sahina Y. V.
is a student of the second (master’s) level of higher education,
H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

10.34142//2708-4809.SIUTY.2022.128

Spiritual and moral education is provided through important educational methods that directly affect the life of each person and contribute to the development of the necessary moral qualities of the individual.

The means of moral education can be considered a complex set of various forms, methods or techniques, visual aids, the impact of which is aimed at the successful formation of the main moral qualities in students, a general idea of spiritual culture [3].

The means of influence can be neutral: they can teach a child both good and very bad things, and only the educator (teacher, parent) is able to direct their influence in the right direction.

There are many factors in the development of a person’s spiritual culture. They include general and specific forms. The most popular method is informing children about norms, values, and discussions on the most pressing issues. The traditional method is to conduct debates or discussions on moral and ethical topics. This method promotes the acquisition of new knowledge, the development of standards of ethical ideas, views, concepts, the formation of interest in the problems of society, the desire for a highly moral version of personal behavior [3].

The conversation helps to analyze the actions of people in difficult situations and moral issues, to form a firm position of the child, to help each student analyze personal experience of behavior, and to develop skills to develop their own views and standards of behavior. The group of methods includes involving students in differentiated activities: labor, aesthetic, artistic, sports, and other types of activities.

The main means of involving students in the development of moral education are: artistic means, the environment, animate and inanimate nature, their own activities in everyday life, communication, and the environment. It is worth noting that the choice of means or a harmonious combination of their parts depends on the task, the age of children, their level of development, intellectual abilities, and the stage of development of qualities (just the beginning of the formation of a quality, consolidation, re-education).

Artistic methods of education are a group of tools that include literature, various types of fine arts, such as cinema and music, theater, and are very effective in shaping the moral qualities of schoolchildren. They contribute to the emotional coloring of cognitive moral situations. These tools are most effective in developing complex moral qualities, feelings, and ideals of behavior.

Moral education is facilitated by reading a book that successfully develops the moral and volitional spheres, which contributes to the formation of unity of consciousness, worldview, and behavior. It can be used to instill the most important moral norms.

Any subject of art or creativity can be a means of education, it all depends on the efforts of the educator or teacher. Any object of art or crafts makes a huge impression on a student, depicting the world in a realistic way that makes them understandable to anyone, including a preschool child who is just learning to understand the world figuratively and feel it by touch.

Nature and natural phenomena help to inspire in children a sense of care for the environment and protection of those who are much weaker and need outside help. Nature helps to form the primary foundation for the development of humane attitudes.

Special attention is paid to communication. It, as a means of forming morality, fulfills the task of adjusting the basic moral ideas and moral relations in the society surrounding a person [1]. It is only in communication that the feelings, qualities and moral ideals that have been formed or have begun to form are consolidated and acquire the character of skills.

The environment, the atmosphere in which a child lives and learns, plays an important role in the formation of moral culture. An atmosphere imbued with benevolence, love, and humanity will always have a positive impact on a person’s education, and vice versa, an immoral and cruel environment can only form negative character traits.

The environment, activating all the previously formed potential of moral qualities, becomes a means of establishing moral feelings and correct norms of behavior.

Scientists argue that a child’s activity is primarily necessary to instill the skills of practicing a morally correct model of behavior. Therefore, any sphere of a student’s activity: play, creativity, work or study, is a factor in the formation of moral and ethical qualities. Each sphere of children’s activity has its own characteristics and is aimed at developing specific moral qualities.

The formation of moral and spiritual concepts is a multifaceted, long process. It requires purposeful, permanent efforts of educators or teachers, parents; constant work according to a plan aimed at developing the qualities of the individual’s consciousness, starting from the moment of birth and ending with older age. Only the correct and harmonious application of existing modern methods of spiritual and moral education will allow to form a truly multifaceted personality capable of withstanding any negative factors of modern society.

List of references

1. Bakulina N. “Dictionary of Tolerance” – “alphabet of politeness” (for schools with national languages of instruction). Primary school. 2006. № 1. С. 33-34.
2. Hamina TS, Turchak AL History of Pedagogy. Part 1: History of foreign pedagogy / edited by A. B. Ratsul. Kirovograd, 2003. 129 с.
3. Maksymiuk S. P. Pedagogy: a textbook. Kyiv: Condor, 2005. URL: https://pidru4niki.com/14821111/pedagogika/moralne_vihovannya (accessed October 27, 22).