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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPIRITUAL UPBRINGING OF EUROPEAN YOUTH: BACKGROUND AND TENDENCIES

The paper examines trends in the spiritual and moral upbringing of young people in European countries. The specific features of their educational process are revealed, the features of the upbringing of European youth are determined, the main directions of formation of cultural and moral values, key personal moral and spiritual qualities of the younger generation are revealed.
Keywords: spirituality, spiritual and moral upbringing, upbringing, Western Europe, youth.

Vyshniak M. V.
PhD student of the third (educational and scientific) level,
H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Lazareva T. S.
PhD student of the third (educational and scientific) level,
Kharkiv H. S. Skovoroda National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

10.34142//2708-4809.SIUTY.2022.190

Spirituality is the basis, the foundation of the culture of our society and human beings. Specialists in various fields – philosophers, psychologists, and educators – have been interested in the study of spiritual and moral upbringing, revealing various aspects of the formation of spiritual and moral values of young people.

In the national science, this problem is based on the provisions of the philosophical doctrine of values of O. Drobnytsky, M. Kagan, P. Matveev; the psychological foundations of the formation of spiritual and moral values of youth are revealed in the works of I. Bech, M. Boryshevsky, S. Bubnov, O. Vlasenko, P. Ihnatenko; spiritual development of the individual is the subject of research in pedagogy and psychology in the works of I. Bech, N. Berdyaev, L. Vygotsky, I. Zyazyun, M. Savchyn, E. Pomytkin.

The purpose of the article is to explore the trends in spiritual and moral upbringing of young people in European countries and to analyze the specific features of their educational process, to identify the features of European youth upbringing and the main directions of formation of cultural and moral values.

Spiritual upbringing outlines the process of creating conditions (material, spiritual, organizational) for the development of the spiritual sphere of the individual, which is systemic for his or her inner world. Thus, E. Pomytkin defines spirituality as

“a specifically human trait that manifests itself in the richness of the spiritual world of the individual, his erudition, developed intellectual and emotional needs, morality” [2, p. 28].

Spiritual upbringing helps to reveal the student’s personality and positive potential. The concept of spiritual upbringing is based, first of all, on the worldview that exists in society. For example, in ancient Greece, there was already a developed system of spiritual upbringing, which was conducted by creating ideals to be followed. The ideals of that time are represented in literary works, in particular Homer’s poems The Iliad and The Odyssey.

The verse “to dream of surpassing others, to burn unceasingly to distinguish oneself” was the motto of a male knight in those days. The ancient Hellenic ethics of honorable status is based on the ethics of Plato and Aristotle in many points. For example, Aristotle writes about the highest measure of self-love, which is the desire to master the beautiful and strive for feats of moral heroism, such as defending the homeland, one’s parents, and friends. The value of the ancient pedagogical heritage is extremely important because it lays down a vector of spiritual development for descendants.

In the process of historical development, a system of spiritual and moral upbringing of young people is formed that is unique and peculiar to a particular country and historical period. A distinctive feature of the youth policy of European countries is the stimulation of exchanges of values and discussions about spirituality among young people and the formation of an active civic position among young people. This usually happens under the influence of educational programs that focus on the formation of self-awareness and national identity of the younger generation.

In the Middle Ages, education in Europe was home-based, with chivalric upbringing for the privileged strata of society and apprenticeship for everyone else. Over time, monastic schools began to appear that provided religious education. The main methods of upbringing were encouragement and punishment.

As for the basis of modern spiritual and moral upbringing, this process is very controversial. On the one hand, the educational process preserves the main traditions of the authoritarian concept, a rather rigid transmission of the values of the previous generation, and on the other hand, the active development of society tends to form the independence and communication skills of young people, their cultural and humanistic spheres. Trends in humanistic upbringing are gaining momentum, despite the priorities of pedagogical authoritarianism. Attention is being paid to the views of the younger generation. The upbringing process based on cooperation between teacher and student is becoming increasingly important. Collective forms of upbringing are being actively implemented, and the joint nature of the activities of teachers and students is being realized. In European countries, the behavioral method of upbringing has become quite widespread. This methodology involves a free form of the educational process, a partnership in tandem between a student and a mentor.

Thus, it can be argued that, in general, European upbringing systems base their theories on the philosophies of existentialism, pragmatism, positivism, and humanism and direct them to the active development of the creative potential of young people. Meanwhile, much attention is also paid to employment and entrepreneurship, social integration, health and well-being of the younger generation.

List of references

1. Spiritual and intellectual upbringing and teaching of youth in the XXI century: international collection of articles / edited by V. P. Babych, L. S. Rybalko. Kharkiv: VNNOT, 2019. 470 с.
2. Pomytkin E.O. Psychology of spiritual development of the individual: monograph. Kyiv: Nash Chas, 2007. 280 с.
3. The problem of spirituality in the process of professional training of future teachers. Collection of scientific works of the H. S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine / edited by S. D. Maksymenko. Kyiv, 2012. VOL. XIV. Ч. 1. С. 397-404.